Water Source Heat Pumps

Mannvit UK offers comprehensive services for the development of ground source heat pump (GSHP) and water source heat pump (WSHP) systems including, engineering, environment, financial incentives and compliance.

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Our engineering services are offered for both open loop (water source heat pumps) and closed loop systems (ground source heat pumps):

  • Open loop:  Uses ground water from aquifer and well
  • Closed loop:  Uses water/antifreeze mixture in a ground loop, does not mix with groundwater

Engineering of a complete ground source heat pump solution involves a variety of engineering disciplines.  Mannvit UK and its local partners offer the specialized services and overall project management needed to successfully develop a ground (source) water heat pump system: 

Mannvit UK Services:

  • Engineering studies
  • Financial incentives and compliance
  • Heat pump design services
  • HVAC
  • Hydro specialty partner:  Vatnaskil LWRC
  • Hydrogeological /borehole design
  • Groundwater Hydrology
  • Surface water hydrology
  • Wellfield development

Ground water heat pumps work by using underground aquifers as both a heat source in winter and a heat sink in the summer.  Aquifers offer good heat conductivity, stable temperatures and large capacities for heat storage. 

Using properly matched HVAC systems along with ground water heat pumps provides energy efficient heating and cooling and a reduced carbon footprint.  This protects businesses and other organizations against rising fuel prices and assists in complying with the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme. 

In the UK, aquifers that are well-suited to ground water heap pumps are plentiful. Estimates indicate that ground source heat pumps have the potential to produce 30% of the UK's heating needs.  With the limited space available for renewable energy production, the Merton Rule requiring 10% of energy needs to be provided by renewable sources for new developments, and the Renewable Heat Incentive, ground source heat pumps are growing quickly in the UK, especially London.  An estimated 1,000 applications for open loop systems are expected annually until this point.

Financial incentives & Compliance
Reflecting the growing importance of renewable heat production energy and environmental stewardship, there are legal requirements in place in the UK that both motivate businesses and organizations to increase their use of renewable heat and to reduce carbon emissions.

Beginning mid-2011, the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) provides incentive funds to developers of small or medium installations with a reasonable heat load that meet a minimum energy efficiency standards.  Also, energy prices from 2004 to 2010 have increased 50% (gas) to 80% (electricity) and long term forecast is for gas prices to increase faster than electricity prices.  In regard to carbon emissions, the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme is a carbon emissions trading scheme started in April 2010, and includes a cap from 2013 onward with only existing allowances available by auction.

Environmental considerations and regulations must be addressed to develop a ground water heat pump system.  Open loop systems affect temperature of groundwater and thermal plumes effect hydrochemistry and bacteriology.  Depending on the type of system, licenses may be required (below).  Mannvit Engineering UK provides services to properly obtain and process required permits.
Hydrogeology and thermal properties need to be investigated, requiring a License to Investigate Groundwater.
Abstraction license (license to divert surface or ground water) and discharge consent must be obtained from the Environment Authority.

Ground source heat pumps are a cost efficient and environmentally friendly heating and cooling solution for individual homes or buildings.